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As far back as records take us, man has used the art of fermentation to improve the storage time and beneficial properties of foods.

Foods with a short storage time, particularly the milk from camels, buffalo, goats, sheep and cows, were fermented naturally to produce an acidic-tasting drink.

History suggests that some of the first yoghurts were produced in goatskin bags, draped over the backs of camels in the hot deserts of North Africa. Temperatures reaching 40 C (110 F) were ideal for lactic acid-producing bacteria to go to work. Since that time, many cultures have fermented many types of food in an effort to develop new flavours and improve shelf life.

Fermented foods have a long history of nutritional and therapeutic benefits, with many of the long-lived cultures around the world using some form of fermented food to achieve longevity and maintain good health.

The famous Hunza of Kashmir and the Georgians of the former Soviet Union have been highlighted for their amazing history of longevity. Both cultures include fermented foods as a significant part of their diet.

It is not uncommon for men over 100 years old to participate in equine activities such as polo, or for women to work in the farm fields at over 100 years of age. Fermented foods such as yoghurt, fermented cheese, miso, tempeh and sauerkraut (fermented cabbage) provide beneficial bacteria to the digestive system as long as they haven’t been pasteurised.

There is a growing weight of scientific evidence that demonstrates how fermented foods play a significant role in human health.


It is generally accepted that the bacterial community resident in the human intestinal tract has a major impact on gastrointestinal function and thereby on human health and well-being.

Chronic diseases associated with modern lifestyle habits are usually related to immune system malfunction. By increasing the population of the beneficial lactobacillus bacteria, the health of the digestive system can be improved. A healthy intestinal tract should consist of at least 85 per cent of these ‘friendly’ bacteria to prevent over-colonisation of pathogenic, disease-causing micro-organisms.

Studies have also shown that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects on the development of chronic adulthood conditions, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. These studies have also pointed to the benefits of probiotics in the prevention of these diseases.

Medical research shows that probiotics:
• Improve digestion
• Increase nutrient assimilation
• Strengthen the immune system
• Increase resistance to yeast infections
• Manufacture B-complex vitamins (biotin and vitamin K)
• Relieve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
• Detoxify toxins and chemicals in the gut
• Maintain correct pH balance in the vaginal ecosystem
• Reduce high blood pressure
• Reduce cholesterol in the blood
• Produce cancer- or tumour-suppressing compounds
• Improve behaviours associated with autism and ADHD in children
• Protect liver function
• Decrease toxic overload from pathogenic bacteria
• May reduce risk of bowel cancer
• Assist elimination and detoxification
• Improve gastrointestinal wind
• Reduce symptoms of lactose intolerance
• Decrease the prevalence of allergies
However, to attain the health benefits attributed to lactobacilli fermented foods, live active bacteria need to be consumed on a regular basis.

Dysbiosis (when the bad guys outnumber the good guys)

Beneficial bacteria are essential for digestion, assimilation of nutrients, and maintenance of the lining of the intestinal tract.

When the balance of bacteria is disrupted and harmful bacteria outnumber beneficial bacteria, this is called dysbiosis.

Dysbiosis is associated with increased gut permeability (leaky gut) and manifests in symptoms such as flatulence, bloating, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, reflux and colic (in infants).
Warning signs of dysbiosis (bacterial imbalance) may include:

• Allergies and food sensitivities
• Frequent colds, flu or infections
• Difficulty losing weight
• Sugar/carbohydrate cravings
• Frequent fatigue
• Poor concentration
• Frequent constipation or diarrhoea
• Faulty digestion, acid reflux and other gut disorders
• Sleeping poorly, night sweats
• Painful joint inflammation, stiffness
• Bad breath, gum disease and dental problems
• Chronic yeast problems
• Acne, eczema, skin and foot fungus
• Extreme menstrual or menopausal symptoms
Causes of dysbiosis (things that kill good bacteria)

The number of ‘good’ bugs in your digestive system can be imbalanced by a wide range of factors including:

• Excessive stress (both psychological and physical)
• Exposure to radiation
• Drinking fluoridated / chlorinated water
• Poor diet (low fibre, high fat, processed foods)
• Excessive alcohol consumption
• Carbonated drinks
• Antibiotic use
• Contraceptive pills
• Steroidal and hormonal drugs

Not all probiotic supplements are created equal. An effective probiotic product should contain bacteria that can:
1. Maintain its high and active count through processing and storage until consumption.
2. Tolerate the acid conditions of the stomach.
3. Tolerate bile salts.
4. Increase its own numbers in the bowel and decrease the numbers of competing bacteria.
Probiotics and Antibiotics

Probiotic supplementation is critical for the prevention of antibiotic-induced conditions (Candida, urinary tract infections, and diarrhoea). Antibiotics destroy friendly gut bacteria along with the harmful bacteria.

Thus, taking probiotics after antibiotic therapy will restore gut flora to a healthy balance.

Lactic acid-producing bacteria alter the pH of the large intestine, making it inhospitable to undesirable bacteria, moulds, mould spores and yeast, particularly Candida.

Probiotics and Autism
A medical study on probiotics for autism has proven so successful that the study ‘failed’, according to a New Scientist report on September 9, 2006. The study, by Prof. Glenn Gibson at Reading University, UK, found that autistic children vastly improved their concentration and behaviour when given probiotics, or ‘friendly bacteria’.

It involved 40 autistic children, aged 4 to 8, half of whom were given the probiotic bacteria L. plantarum, while the other half received a ‘dummy’ probiotic.

It was supposed to have been a blind study, where the participants were not told who were taking the actual probiotics and who were taking placebos or ‘dummy’ medicine.

As part of this probiotics for autism study, parents were asked to record their children’s mood and behaviour in a diary.

The results were too obvious. Parents whose autistic children were taking the actual probiotics saw such great improvements in their children’s behaviour that they knew their children were taking the real thing.

Thus, problems arose during the ‘crossover’ point of this probiotics for autism study, when the two groups were supposed to switch medicines.

When it came time for the families to switch, the families who had been receiving the actual probiotics refused to change over to the placebo.

As a result, the study experienced an astronomical drop-out rate that caused the study eventually to fail. Many of the parents whose children were taking the actual probiotics refused to make the switch, as they wanted their autistic children to continue to improve. One parent said it was ‘heartbreaking’ to have to stop their child taking it.

Probiotics and Ageing
Recent studies suggest an association between inflammation status and the presence of chronic disease in the elderly. Probiotics might improve inflammatory conditions in the elderly.

Differences in the gut bacteria may be related to the progression of diseases and frailty in the elderly population. It appears possible to extend healthy ageing and lifespan by manipulating the complex ecosystem of gut bacteria. Consumption of probiotics has been shown to improve the quality of life in the elderly.

Probiotics and Allergies / Eczema / Dermatitis
Gastrointestinal microflora dominated by lactic acid bacteria are crucial for the maturation and proper functioning of the human immune system. There is very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis.

Clinical improvement in allergic rhinitis and eczema has been reported too. Studies have also shown a significant risk reduction for atopic eczema in children aged 2-7 years through the administration of probiotics during pregnancy, and they have demonstrated the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of paediatric atopic dermatitis.

Probiotics and Anxiety / Depression
Research suggests that bacteria in the GI tract can communicate with the central nervous system. Probiotics could be proposed as a novel strategy as an adjuvant for psychiatric treatment of anxiety and depression.

Probiotics and Colon Cancer
Probiotics have the potential to significantly impact the development, progression and treatment of colorectal cancer and may play a valuable role in cancer prevention. Studies point out the inverse relationship between the consumption of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer diagnosis.

Probiotics and Cholesterol / Hypertension
Studies have shown that probiotics were found to improve certain metabolic disorders such as hypertension and that a diet rich in probiotics decreases total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration in plasma for people with high, borderline high and normal cholesterol levels.

Probiotics and Infections
Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei have demonstrated antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Probiotics minimise the postoperative occurrence of infectious complications.

Probiotics may be beneficial for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections and offer a potential new means to prevent urogenital infections and help maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem.

Probiotics and Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Other Gastrointestinal Diseases
Bacterial probiotic therapy shortens the duration of acute diarrhoeal illness in children. Probiotics may offer a safe and effective method to prevent traveller’s diarrhoea. They may also be a safe and effective option for the relief of abdominal pain and bloating for patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

In addition, probiotic treatment is effective in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis. It is probable that probiotics may be the best future treatment for mild-to-moderate uncomplicated attacks of acute diverticulitis.

Probiotics and Leaky Gut / Food Allergies
In modern society, many of the beneficial and necessary bacteria have been destroyed in the majority of people’s digestive tracts due to food intolerances, certain drug ingestion, bacterial/viral infections, the modern lifestyle and stress.

By promoting proper food digestion, friendly bacteria aid in preventing food allergies. If digestion is poor, the activity of intestinal bacteria on undigested food may lead to excessive production of histamine, which triggers allergic symptoms. This leads to digestive problems and leaky gut, where the gut lining becomes inflamed.

This inflammation creates gaps in the gut wall, which allows macro food particles and other foreign microbes to enter the body and trigger an immune response, resulting in allergies, further exacerbating food intolerances, and possibly triggering autoimmune diseases.

Probiotics decrease intestinal permeability and improve the ability to effectively digest, process, and absorb nutrients from foods.
Probiotics have been proven to enhance immunity, fight gut infections and reduce production of toxic by-products in the bowel.

Probiotics and Liver Function
Short-term oral supplementation with probiotics is associated with restoration of the bowel flora and greater improvement in alcohol-induced liver injury.

Probiotics and Obesity / Metabolic Syndrome
New findings explain how gut bacteria can be involved in the development, or control of, obesity and associated inflammation.
The number of certain probiotic bacteria is inversely related to fat mass development, diabetes, and/or the low levels of inflammation associated with obesity. Future treatments for obesity may involve modulation of gut bacteria using probiotics.

Probiotics and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Treatment with Bacillus coagulans, a probiotic bacteria, appears to be safe and effective for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.
In the appendices of this magazine there are references to 77 medical studies supporting the amazing health benefits of probiotics.


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Probiotics and Ageing
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11. Woodmansey EJ. Intestinal bacteria and ageing. J Appl Microbiol. 2007 May;102(5):1178-86.
12. Bosch Gallego M, Espadaler Mazo J, Méndez Sánchez M, Pérez Carre M, Farrán Codina A, Audivert Brugué S, Bonachera Sierra MA, Cuñé Castellana J. Consumption of the probiotic Lactobacillus planctarum CECT 7315/7316 improves general health in the elderly subjects. Nutr Hosp. 2011 May-Jun;26(3):642-5. Spanish.
13. Mañé J, Pedrosa E, Lorén V, Gassull MA, Espadaler J, Cuñé J, Audivert S, Bonachera MA, Cabré E. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7315 and CECT 7316 enhances systemic immunity in elderly subjects. A dose-response, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot trial. Nutr Hosp. 2011 Jan-Feb;26(1):228-35.
14. Zaharoni H, Rimon E, Vardi H, Friger M, Bolotin A, Shahar DR. Probiotics improve bowel movements in hospitalized elderly patients—the PROAGE study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 Mar;15(3):215-20.
15. Michail SK, Stolfi A, Johnson T, Onady GM. Efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008 Nov;101(5):508-16.
16. Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ. Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood—a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan;107(1):1-6. Epub 2011 Jul 26.
17. Torii S, Torii A, Itoh K, Urisu A, Terada A, Fujisawa T, Yamada K, Suzuki H, Ishida Y, Nakamura F, Kanzato H, Sawada D, Nonaka A, Hatanaka M, Fujiwara S. Effects of oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 on the symptoms and serum markers of atopic dermatitis in children. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;154(3):236-45. Epub 2010 Sep 21.
18. Weston S, Halbert A, Richmond P, Prescott SL. Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: A randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Sep;90(9):892-7. Epub 2005 Apr 29.
19. Ozdemir O. Any benefits of probiotics in allergic disorders? Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010 Mar-Apr;31(2):103-11.
20. Roży A, Jaguś P, Chorostowska-Wynimko J. Probiotics in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2012;80(1):65-76. Polish.
21. Nogueira JC, Gonçalves Mda C. Probiotics in allergic rhinitis. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2011 Jan-Feb;77(1):129-34.
22. West CE, Hammarström ML, Hernell O. Probiotics during weaning reduce the incidence of eczema. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009 Aug;20(5):430-7. Epub 2009 Mar 9.
23. Nagata Y, Yoshida M, Kitazawa H, Araki E, Gomyo T. Improvements in seasonal allergic disease with Lactobacillus plantarum No. 14. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(9):1869-77. Epub 2010 Sep 7.
24. Isolauri E, Rautava S, Salminen S. Probiotics in the development and treatment of allergic disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2012 Dec;41(4):747-62. doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2012.08.007.

Probiotics and Anxiety / Depression
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26. Logan AC, Katzman M. Major depressive disorder: Probiotics may be an adjuvant therapy. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(3):533-8.
27. Mital BK, Garg SK. Anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, and antagonistic activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1995;21(3):175-214.
28. Denipote FG, Trindade EB, Burini RC. Probiotics and prebiotics in primary care for colon cancer. Arq Gastroenterol. 2010 Jan- Mar;47(1):93-8. Portuguese.
29. Geier MS, Butler RN, Howarth GS. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics: A role in chemoprevention for colorectal cancer? Cancer Biol Ther. 2006 Oct;5(10):1265-9. Epub 2006 Oct 19.
30. Azcárate-Peril MA, Sikes M, Bruno-Bárcena JM. The intestinal microbiota, gastrointestinal environment and colorectal cancer: A putative role for probiotics in prevention of colorectal cancer? Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Sep;301(3):G401-24. Epub 2011 Jun 23.
31. de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Matar C, Perdigón G. The application of probiotics in cancer. Br J Nutr. 2007 Oct;98 Suppl 1:S105-10.
32. Guo Z, Liu XM, Zhang QX, Shen Z, Tian FW, Zhang H, Sun ZH, Zhang HP, Chen W. Influence of consumption of probiotics on the plasma lipid profile: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Nov;21(11):844-50. Epub 2011 Sep 17.
33. Lye HS, Kuan CY, Ewe JA, Fung WY, Liong MT. The improvement of hypertension by probiotics: Effects on cholesterol, diabetes, renin, and phytoestrogens. Int J Mol Sci. 2009 Aug 27;10(9):3755-75.
34. Karska-Wysocki B, Bazo M, Smoragiewicz W. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Microbiol Res. 2010 Oct 20;165(8):674-86. Epub 2010 Jan 29.
35. Pitsouni E, Alexiou V, Saridakis V, Peppas G, Falagas ME. Does the use of probiotics/synbiotics prevent postoperative infections in patients undergoing abdominal surgery? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;65(6):561-70. Epub 2009 Mar 27.
36. Siempos II, Ntaidou TK, Falagas ME. Impact of the administration of probiotics on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar;38(3):954-62.
37. Hummelen R, Vos AP, van’t Land B, van Norren K, Reid G. Altered host-microbe interaction in HIV: A target for intervention with pro- and prebiotics. Int Rev Immunol. 2010 Oct;29(5):485-513.
38. Zhang JW, Du P, Gao J, Yang BR, Fang WJ, Ying CM. Preoperative probiotics decrease postoperative infectious complications of colorectal cancer. Am J Med Sci. 2012 Mar;343(3):199-205.
39. Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR, Huang CQ, Wu T. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Sep 7;(9):CD006895.
40. Reid G, Dols J, Miller W. Targeting the vaginal microbiota with probiotics as a means to counteract infections. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Nov;12(6):583-7.
41. Madsen K. Probiotics in critically ill patients. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 1:S116-8.
42. Zwolińska-Wcisło M, Brzozowski T, Mach T, Budak A, Trojanowska D, Konturek PC, Pajdo R, Drozdowicz D, Kwiecień S. Are probiotics effective in the treatment of fungal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract? Experimental and clinical studies. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;57 Suppl 9:35-49.

Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Diseases
43. Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z, Miles JN, Shanman R, Johnsen B, Shekelle PG. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 May 9;307(18):1959-69.
44. Huang JS, Bousvaros A, Lee JW, Diaz A, Davidson EJ. Efficacy of probiotic use in acute diarrhea in children: A meta- analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2002 Nov;47(11):2625-34.
45. Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: A meta- analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82.
46. Van Niel CW, Feudtner C, Garrison MM, Christakis DA. Lactobacillus therapy for acute infectious diarrhea in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2002 Apr;109(4):678-84.
47. McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of traveler’s diarrhea. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007 Mar;5(2):97-105. Epub 2005 Dec 5.
48. Nikfar S, Rahimi R, Rahimi F, Derakhshani S, Abdollahi M. Efficacy of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Dec;51(12):1775-80. Epub 2008 May 9.
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50. McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 May 7;14(17):2650-61.
51. van Zanten SV. ACP Journal Club: Probiotics improve symptoms in adults with the irritable bowel syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Sep 21;153(6):JC3-7.
52. Dunne C. Adaptation of bacteria to the intestinal niche: Probiotics and gut disorder. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001 May;7(2):136-45.
53. Cuomo R, Savarese MF, Gargano R. Almost all irritable bowel syndromes are post-infectious and respond to probiotics: Consensus issues. Dig Dis. 2007;25(3):241-4.
54. Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, Ahrné S, Jeppsson B. Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 May;95(5):1231-8.
55. Hosseini A, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Probiotics use to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 Oct;12(10):1323-34. doi:10.1517/14712598.2012.707179. Epub 2012 Aug 16.
56. Sinn DH, Song JH, Kim HJ, Lee JH, Son HJ, Chang DK, Kim YH, Kim JJ, Rhee JC, Rhee PL. Therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Oct;53(10):2714-8. Epub 2008 Feb 15.
57. Sang LX, Chang B, Zhang WL, Wu XM, Li XH, Jiang M. Remission induction and maintenance effect of probiotics on ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr 21;16(15):1908-15.
58. Tursi A. Acute diverticulitis of the colon—current medical therapeutic management. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004 Jan;5(1):55-9.
59. Hun L. Bacillus coagulans significantly improved abdominal pain and bloating in patients with IBS. Postgrad Med. 2009 Mar;121(2):119-24.
60. McFarland LV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 May 14;16(18):2202-22.
61. Quigley EM. Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jul;34(1):100-1. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04671.x.
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63. Murakami K, Habukawa C, Nobuta Y, Moriguchi N, Takemura T. The effect of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 against irritable bowel syndrome: A placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial. Biopsychosoc Med. 2012 Aug 3;6(1):16. doi:10.1186/1751-0759-6-16.
64. Guglielmetti S, Mora D, Gschwender M, Popp K. Randomised clinical trial: Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 significantly alleviates irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life—a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 May;33(10):1123-32. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04633.x. Epub 2011 Mar 21.
65. Kalman DS, Schwartz HI, Alvarez P, Feldman S, Pezzullo JC, Krieger DR. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009 Nov 18;9:85.

Probiotics and Liver Function
66. Higashikawa F, Noda M, Awaya T, Nomura K, Oku H, Sugiyama M. Improvement of constipation and liver function by plant-derived lactic acid bacteria: A double-blind, randomized trial. Nutrition. 2010 Apr;26(4):367-74. Epub 2009 Jul 22.
67. Kirpich IA, Solovieva NV, Leikhter SN, Shidakova NA, Lebedeva OV, Sidorov PI, Bazhukova TA, Soloviev AG, Barve SS, McClain CJ, Cave M.
Probiotics restore bowel flora and improve liver enzymes in human alcohol-induced liver injury: A pilot study. Alcohol. 2008 Dec;42(8):675-82.
Probiotics and Obesity / Metabolic Syndrome
68. Delzenne NM, Neyrinck AM, Cani PD. Modulation of the gut microbiota by nutrients with prebiotic properties: Consequences for host health in the context of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Microb Cell Fact. 2011 Aug 30;10 Suppl 1:S10. Epub 2011 Aug 30.
69. Delzenne NM, Cani PD. Interaction between obesity and the gut microbiota: Relevance in nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr. 2011 Aug 21;31:15-31.
70. Cani PD, Delzenne NM. Interplay between obesity and associated metabolic disorders: New insights into the gut microbiota. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;9(6):737-43. Epub 2009 Jul 21.
71. Cani PD, Delzenne NM. Involvement of the gut microbiota in the development of low grade inflammation associated with obesity: Focus on this neglected partner. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2010 Apr-Jun;73(2):267-9.
72. Krznarić Z, Vranešić Bender D, Kunović A, Kekez D, Stimac D. Gut microbiota and obesity. Dig Dis. 2012;30(2):196-200. doi:10.1159/000336965. Epub 2012 Jun 20.
73. Scarpellini E, Campanale M, Leone D, Purchiaroni F, Vitale G, Lauritano EC, Gasbarrini A. Gut microbiota and obesity. Intern Emerg Med. 2010 Oct;5 Suppl 1:S53-6.
74. Cani PD, Delzenne NM. The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15(13):1546- 58.
75. Shen J, Obin MS, Zhao L. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance. Mol Aspects Med. 2012 Nov 15. doi:pii:S0098- 2997(12)00128-8.10.1016/j.mam.2012.11.001.
76. Marik PE. Colonic flora, probiotics, obesity and diabetes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012;3:87. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

Probiotics and Rheumatoid Arthritis
77. Mandel DR, Eichas K, Holmes J. Bacillus coagulans: A viable adjunct therapy for relieving symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis according to a randomized, controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Jan 12;10:1.